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Age Of Enlightenment.


Age of Enlightenment From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia . . . History of Western philosophy

The Enlightenment, known in French as the ‘’Siècle des Lumières’’ (Century of Enlightenment), and in German as the ‘’Aufklärung’’, was a philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. The central doctrines of the Lumieres were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to the principle of absolute monarchy in France and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church[1]

French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between the 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution. Some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. The Philosophes, the French term for the philosophers of the period, widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons and coffee houses, and through printed books and pamphlets. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the church, and prepared the way for the revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries.[2]

The major figures of the Enlightenment were, in France; the Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), Voltaire (1694-1778), Denis Diderot (1713-1784), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1714-1780), and the Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794); in Great Britain, David Hume (1711-76) and Adam Smith (1723-1790); in Germany, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804); and in Italy, Giambattista Vico (1668-1744), Cesar Beccaria (1734-94) and Francesco Mario Pagano (1748–99). The Americans Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson came to Europe during the period and contributed actively to the scientific and political debate, and the ideals of the Enlightenment were incorporated into the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. [3]

The age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the Scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon (1562–1626), René Descartes (1596–1650), John Locke (1632–1704), Baruch Spinoza (1632–77), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706) Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727)[4]

Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick I of Prussia, corresponded and met with Voltaire and other leading figures of the Enlightenment, and tried, at least briefly, to apply their ideas on religious and political tolerance. This became known as enlightened absolutism. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie, compiled by Denis Diderot and (until 1759) by Jean le Rond d’Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers. It was published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, and spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond.[5] Other influential publications were the Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary, 1764) and Letters on the English (1733) written by Voltaire (1694–1778). The ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an opposing intellectual movement known as Romanticism.

COMMENTS: Mark Davidson: Most fascinating looking at past 'Ages' & 'Revolutions' . . . aside from liberty spreading as individual knowledge became available (with both science & knowledge carrying people away from Scripture and into their own self-egos) the most exciting and interesting point for me was the very last sentence: "After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an opposing intellectual movement known as Romanticism" . . . WITH EVERY REVOLUTION THAT COMES TO FREE PEOPLE'S MINDS AND HEARTS FROM RELIGIOUS BONDAGE THERE WILL ALWAYS BE THE SLIMEY INTELLECTUALS TRYING TO COMPLICATE THE PURE WORD FOR THE SIMPLE FOLK (insert eye-roll & facepalm) . . . . it will not work. Yahusha breaks through all of that madness - anointing and choosing who He wills. Great find mate . . .

Victoria Hilton: This is such a good understanding and article,darling, to see what has been happening amongst the Believers today who are embracing the Behaviour Revolution. The extreme bondage, emotional, psychological, financial, moral, and every area of our lives (that people don't even realise) following magical events daily, engrafted into our psyche from generations ago.This pattern shows in history again.. With each generation there is a form of revolt with young teens wanting to think for themselves! but who all end up caught in the system. There is a way out......follow this BEHAVIOUR REVOLUTION.